Inside for each instance, all the questions concerned about each other deal with-to-deal with an internet-based relationship


So you’re able to measure the size of the brand new circle away from deal with-to-face family, the items in the Joy Questionnaire Display (Helliwell and you will Huang, 2013) were utilized: “Around exactly how many family members do you have?.” That it concern is replied on a measure of 1 less than 5 family members to help you 5 over 50 household members. Issue to evaluate the dimensions of online buddy communities try equivalent (Helliwell and Huang, 2013): “Everything exactly how many family members are you experiencing for the Twitter?” however the reaction size are different, between step one lower than fifty to 8 over one thousand.

The questions towards quality of relationships used in the fresh new European Societal Survey was basically adjusted to evaluate top-notch deal with-to-face and online relationships. The questions had been: “Exactly how many persons have you got that have the person you normally speak about sexual and personal issues?” and “How many of those persons is the Facebook relatives?.” The new impulse size ranged from just one (none) to 7 (ten or maybe more).

A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.


So you can assess future health, and the perceived health product tend to found in around the world studies (age.grams., Eriksson mais aussi al., 2001 pinalove dating – “How do you speed your overall health in general” having responses towards a good 5-section level, ranging from decent to help you terrible) the latest five bits of the fresh future health aspect of Condition from Wellness Survey SF-36 (Ware and you can Sherbourne, 1992) had been included. A typical example of the questions is: “I seem to get sick a small smoother than other anybody.” These items have been replied towards the an excellent 5-area scale, ranging from step 1 surely incorrect so you’re able to 5 certainly genuine. The five products presented an adequate precision (? = 0.72) while the mediocre of the five things is actually computed as sign away from worry about-advertised health.

Psychological state are analyzed thru four factors about SF-thirty six (Ware and you will Sherbourne, 1992). An example are “How frequently maybe you have considered extremely scared over the last 4 weeks?.” These questions was indeed responded with the a good 5-section size, between not to ever usually. Because level of interior surface of the items try good (? = 0.80), this new indication away from psychological state is actually calculated, averaging brand new solutions these types of five concerns.

The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.

The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.